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Processing of Marks

After marking is completed, various processes are adopted to ensure that the marks awarded by markers, the marks in different optional parts and the marks of different papers are fair and comparable before they are aggregated to form the subject mark.
From raw mark to subject mark
After the completion of marking, the mark statistics of each marker’s batch of scripts are checked. Coupled with evidence gathered from checkmarking, appropriate actions such as mark adjustment or remarking are taken to rectify marking that is too lenient, strict or erratic. These processes give rise to the adjusted mark.

In some subjects where there are optional sections or papers, the adjusted marks of the optional parts may be equated so that the performance of candidates choosing different options can be reflected on the same scale. This process gives rise to the equated mark. One example is found in English Language Paper 1 (Reading) and Paper 3 (Listening & Integrated Skills) where all candidates must do Part A and choose either Part B1 (easier section) or Part B2 (more difficult section). To assess the performance of candidates choosing different sections on the same scale, each mark in the scale of the easier section will be converted to an equivalent mark in the more difficult section.

After mark adjustment and, if applicable, mark equating, the adjusted / equated marks of each question / section achieved by a candidate in an examination paper are then added up according to their relative weightings to form the paper mark.

If a subject consists of two or more examination papers, the adjusted marks (or equated marks if applicable) of individual examination papers are converted to the same scale, taking into account the spread of marks in different papers and the published paper weightings, to form the weighted paper marks. This is done because the overall performance of candidates, in terms of the mean and spread of adjusted marks, may be different across the examination papers for a subject and so these marks are not directly comparable with each other (Please click here for details of the relevant example). The weighted paper marks for each examination paper represent the final marks for each candidate, and are added together forming the subject mark for subjects with no School-based Assessment (SBA).

Subjects with School-based Assessment (SBA)

For subjects with SBA, the SBA marks submitted by schools are moderated to iron out possible differences in marking standards among teachers, and the mean and spread of marks of a school are adjusted (click here for details). Because of this, the SBA marks can be directly combined with the weighted examination paper marks for a subject, with no further conversion, in accordance with the prescribed weightings to achieve the subject mark for each candidate.

For subjects with both component and subject results reported, the subject mark is the sum of all the component marks. For components comprising one examination paper and the SBA, the weighted paper marks of the constituent paper and the moderated SBA marks are added up to form the component mark according to their weighting as stipulated in the Assessment Framework. If the component consists of only one paper, the component mark is the same as the weighted paper mark.

SBA results are not separately reported in the Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education. However, profile reporting is adopted for Chinese Language, English Language and Combined Science. The SBA results of these subjects will be reported together with the relevant examination paper in the component concerned.

Below is a summary of the various processes adopted in the processing of marks described above:

Process Mark generated Remarks
Marking Raw mark Marks given by marker(s).
Mark adjustment Adjusted mark Marks awarded by markers are adjusted, if necessary, to rectify lenient, strict or erratic marking.
Mark equating (if applicable) Equated mark Marks of one optional part are equated to those of another optional part (e.g. in English Language Paper 1 (Reading) and Paper 3 (Listening & Integrated Skills), marks of the easier section are converted to equivalent marks in the more difficult section).
Forming paper mark Paper mark After adjustment / equating, marks of all questions / sections within a paper are added up according to the weighting of the questions / sections in the paper.
Forming weighted paper mark Weighted paper mark Marks of different papers are converted to the same comparable scale, taking into account the spread of marks in different papers and the published paper weightings, before they are combined to form the subject mark.
Forming component mark* Component mark For components with only one paper, the component mark is the same as the weighted paper mark. For components consisting of one examination paper and the SBA^, the component mark is the sum of the weighted paper mark and the moderated SBA mark according to their weighting as stipulated in the Assessment Framework.
Forming subject mark Subject mark The subject mark is the sum of the weighted paper marks and the moderated SBA marks (if applicable). During the grading process, the subject level is determined based on the subject mark. Please click here for details regarding the grading process.

For English Language, Chinese Language and Combined Science, the subject mark is the sum of the marks of all the components. The subject level of these subjects is not simply the average of the component levels but is also based on the candidate’s subject mark.

* Applicable only to English Language, Chinese Language and Combined Science, where component results are reported in addition to the subject result.

^ Component 4 (Speaking) of English Language comprises the results of Paper 4 and the SBA, Component 3 (Listening and Integrated Skills) of Chinese Language comprises the results of Paper 3 and the SBA, while each component of Combined Science comprises the results of the written examination and the SBA of the half-subject concerned.

 

 

 

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